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A healthy tongue is normally covered in small bumps called papillae. Some of them contain taste buds. They give the tongue its distinctive texture.1
Your papillae are often unnoticeable because they have a consistent color and texture. However, some conditions can cause them to become inflamed.
Inflamed papillae can appear raised or enlarged. They may cause your tongue to feel painful, sore, or unusually sensitive.
Various things can cause inflamed tongue bumps. Although most tongue bumps, some can be more serious.
Here are 14 reasons why you have bumps on the back of your tongue:
A tongue injury may cause a bump to appear or your tongue to feel rough. Like other body parts, an injury may cause a swollen tongue.
If you have a swollen bump on your tongue, you may have unintentionally bitten it a few days before. Hot drinks or foods can also burn your tongue, leading to rough patches or enlarged bumps.
Lie bumps, or transient lingual papillitis (TLP), are temporary inflammations of the papillae. Itching, acute sensitivity, or a burning feeling on the tongue are all symptoms of lie bumps.
Although their cause isn't precisely known, they may be affected by hormonal, dietary, and stress-related factors. Lie bumps typically go away on their own.
Canker sores can appear as bumps on your tongue. They're common mouth sores that appear inside your:2
The sores are typically red, white, or yellow and may be rough and unpleasant. Most canker sores subside on their own. However, others can be very painful and may need medical attention.
Squamous papilloma may be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It shows up as an irregular lump or a bump on your tongue.
This condition is usually painless and can be treated with surgical or laser removal. Other symptoms of HPV can be addressed on an individual basis.
Glossitis is an inflammatory condition where the tongue loses its papillae (depapillation). This can cause your tongue to appear smooth but red and irritated.
Geographic tongue is a type of glossitis. It causes irregular patches that seem to migrate across the tongue over time.
Glossitis can be caused by:
The same bacteria that cause strep throat can also cause scarlet fever. One symptom of scarlet fever is a red, bumpy tongue, known as a “strawberry tongue.”
Scarlet fever is often seen in children or people who come into contact with them. Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics to treat this illness.
Food allergies may cause swelling or itching of the tongue and create bumps. If your entire tongue swells suddenly, it may be due to a serious condition known as anaphylaxis.3
Seek immediate assistance if you experience:
In rare cases, a bump on your tongue could be a sign of tongue cancer or oral cancer. If a tongue bump develops on the side of the tongue, it's more likely to be malignant, especially if it's hard and painless.
You should see your doctor for any lump or bump that lasts more than a week or two.
Oral thrush is an oral yeast infection that causes creamy white patches on the tongue.4 You may also notice soreness or redness in your mouth if you have this disease.
Other health conditions that can cause oral thrush include:
Your doctor may prescribe antifungal medications to help overcome oral thrush.
Traumatic fibroma is a smooth, pink growth on the tongue or mouth. It's often caused by chronic irritation due to:
Lymphoepithelial cysts are rare benign cysts that can appear on the head and neck. The head and neck are sites for salivary glands, and because of this, bumps can appear on the underside of the tongue.10
This is often caused by entrapment or proliferation of epithelium in association with lymphoid tissue. The epithelium is a type of body tissue that covers your body's internal and external surfaces, including the mouth.11
Syphilis is a potentially life-threatening infection that can cause mouth and tongue sores. It's a bacterial infection that can spread from person to person during sex.5
Bumps on the back of the tongue can be one of the early signs of syphilis. You'll need to receive urgent medical attention and antibiotics to recover from the disease.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs spread from person to person through the air. Although the disease normally affects the lungs, it can affect the mouth and tongue in rare cases.6
When you have TB, you may experience a sore throat and pain in your tongue. Some people also develop ulcers or lesions in their mouths. If you have any of these symptoms, get tested for TB immediately.
The herpes simplex virus causes oral herpes and is highly contagious. The virus can cause bumps or blisters on the lips, tongue, and mouth.
The bumps may also appear inside the cheek. They will usually heal in two to three weeks, but may return without warning.
Keep an eye on the tongue bumps' size, color, and spread while you treat them at home. If there is no improvement or your condition worsens, schedule an appointment with your doctor.
Most causes of inflamed tongue bumps resolve on their own. However, you should seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
Inflamed lumps on the tongue typically look bigger and swollen. They may also change color to white, bright pink, or black.
Tongue bumps may be accompanied by:
A doctor will first inquire about your medical history and known allergies to determine what is causing your tongue bumps. They will do an oral exam to check your taste buds for changes in:7
Your physician may also order blood tests to rule out other problems, such as infection or disease. If the doctor suspects cancer, they will send you to a specialist who will either conduct a biopsy or remove the bump entirely.
Although some causes of tongue bumps require medical attention, home remedies can help. These include:
Good oral health may lower the chance of tongue bumps and cancer and keep lumps from becoming infected or painful.
Maintain good oral hygiene by doing the following:
Your tongue is naturally covered in tiny bumps known as papillae. You may rarely notice them due to their size and color.
Sometimes injuries, infections, or other conditions can swell your papillae or cause larger bumps on your tongue. While many of these conditions are temporary and resolve on their own, others may be more serious.
Talk to your dentist or doctor if you’re concerned about changes in your tongue’s appearance or sensitivity.
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