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Hyperdontia is a dental condition that causes too many teeth to grow in the mouth.
These additional teeth are sometimes called supernumerary teeth. One or more supernumerary teeth may grow in one or more locations in the mouth.
Supernumerary teeth can develop anywhere in the mouth's curved areas where the teeth attach to the jaw. This location is known as the dental arches.
Make sure to tell your general dentist if hyperdontia causes:
The main sign of hyperdontia is the development of additional teeth directly behind or close to your permanent teeth.
Supernumerary teeth can grow alone or in multiples. They can also appear in different areas of the mouth, such as:
If an additional tooth is visible, your dentist may describe it as erupted. If it is hidden under the gum line, they may describe it as impacted. Most supernumerary teeth are single and impacted.
There are various shapes that supernumerary teeth can take, including:
Hyperdontia is easy to diagnose if the supernumerary teeth have already grown. If they haven’t completely grown in, they will still show on a dental X-ray.
Your dentist may also use a three-dimensional imaging called a cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. This will give them a more detailed look at your mouth, jaw, and teeth.
Some cases of hyperdontia don’t require treatment. However, other cases require the removal of the extra teeth.
Your dentist will likely suggest removing the additional teeth if you:
If the additional teeth only cause mild discomfort, your dentist may suggest taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs include ibuprofen to reduce the pain of overcrowding.
If the surrounding teeth are crooked or affected, extra dental and orthodontic treatment can fix these issues.
If you have any teeth removed, you should expect some bleeding for a day or two.
This bleeding is easily managed with a dental compress. If necessary, your dentist will also prescribe a painkiller.
Due to swelling and bruising, you won’t be able to open your mouth completely. This is most prevalent on the day following the procedure.
Within a week or two, the swelling should be gone entirely. Any stitches would have fallen out on their own.
Your dentist will advise on the most appropriate foods and beverages to eat and drink. They will also recommend you abstain from work or school.
Early diagnosis of hyperdontia leads to a better outlook for people with the condition. A dentist may be able to diagnose hyperdontia in children as young as two years.
Removing extra teeth can reduce the risk of dental complications in the future. Furthermore, once the additional tooth is removed, any discomfort usually stops.
Hyperdontia is not usually painful. However, the additional teeth may increase pressure on your jaw and gums, leading to swelling and soreness.
Most supernumerary teeth cause risks and complications. These risks include:
It’s essential to remove supernumerary teeth if they affect your dental hygiene or other teeth.
In permanent teeth, the prevalence of hyperdontia varies from 0.1% to 3.8%. In baby teeth, the prevalence is 0.3% to 0.6%.1
Two additional teeth only occur in 12% to 23% of hyperdontia cases. The chances of having more than two extra teeth are fewer than 1% of all cases.
As many as 98% of supernumerary teeth are in the upper jaw. When hyperdontia develops in adult teeth, it’s twice as prevalent among males than females.
The cause of hyperdontia remains unclear. However, it is believed that hyperdontia is associated with various hereditary conditions. These conditions include:5
Other potential causes of hyperdontia include environmental factors and overactivity of the dental lamina during tooth growth.
There are also specific locations of the mouth where supernumerary teeth tend to develop:
Hyperdontia is a dental condition that causes more teeth to grow in the mouth. While the cause of hyperdontia isn’t fully understood, it could be caused by genetic or environmental factors.
Extra teeth can appear in different areas of the mouth. They can appear alone or in multiples and take on different shapes.
Hyperdontia is relatively harmless but can cause complications, discomfort, and gum disease. Dentists may need to remove the extra teeth. However, in other cases, it isn’t necessary.
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