dental instruments and oral health

Common Oral Conditions & Diseases

Oral diseases impact the health of teeth, gums, surrounding tissues, and the entire body. Understanding the risks ensures the highest quality treatment is sought depending on individual needs.

Common oral diseases and conditions include dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease, bruxism (teeth grinding), plaque buildup, cracked tooth syndrome, and more:

Dental Caries

Dental caries are caused by the interaction between microorganisms (Streptococcus Mutans), tooth structure (enamel), and a substrate (sugar). Common treatment options include direct restorations (fillings) and indirect restorations, such as dental crowns.

Gingivitis & Periodontal Disease

Gingivitis, a gum inflammation, is commonly an early sign of periodontal disease (PD), a serious oral disease that affects the gums and jawbone. PD is the result of poor oral hygiene worsened by smoking, neglected dental treatment, or extreme changes in diet. Symptoms include inflamed gums, bleeding gums, and/or high levels of plaque.


Bruxism is a common condition caused by voluntary or involuntary movement of the mandibular (bottom) jawbone. This habitual movement results in clenching, grinding, or teeth clicking. Individuals with bruxism often clench or grind teeth in their sleep. Treatment may include a mouthguard, mouth splint, and/or anxiety medication.

Bad Breath & Dry Mouth

Common causes of bad breath include tobacco use, high sugar diets, excessive coffee or alcohol consumption, not brushing teeth regularly, and dry mouth. Depending on the condition’s severity, there are professional dental treatments available and natural ways to reduce bad breath.

Tartar & Dental Plaque

Dental plaque is a sticky, non-mineralized mass of bacteria that forms on a tooth’s surface. Plaque occurs when substances containing refined carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are routinely left on the teeth. Once plaque hardens, it forms into tartar. If left untreated, tooth decay is a common risk factor.

Cracked Tooth Syndrome

Cracked tooth syndrome is a result of bruxism, which occurs when excessive grinding or clenching of the teeth causes an internal crack in the tooth. The crack is usually difficult to see but can cause extreme pain when biting down at the right angle. Common treatments include indirect restorations, such as an onlay or crown.

Tooth Sensitivity Treatment

Tooth sensitivity can be caused by many different dental issues. This includes bruxism (grinding and clenching), gingivitis, cavities, gum recession, cracked teeth, plaque or tartar buildup, incorrect brushing, or eating acidic foods.

TMJ Treatment

Jaw injuries, long-term teeth grinding or clenching, and other medical issues can lead to temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ). This disorder causes pain in the jaw joint when opening and closing the mouth. Treatments include mouthguards, prosthodontics, jaw surgery, and therapy.

Dental Anxiety

Up to 16 percent of adults experience dental anxiety, or dental phobia, while receiving dental treatment. If you have extreme dental anxiety, anesthesia or sedation dentistry is available. Pain and anxiety control methods include analgesia, anesthesia, general anesthesia, local anesthesia, and conscious sedation.

Oral Thrush

Oral thrush (oral candidiasis) is a yeast infection resulting from an overgrowth of Candida fungus that lives in the mucous membranes lining in the mouth. The most common type of Candida fungus that causes thrush is Candida albicans. Thrush is difficult to notice, at least at first, and does not cause severe pain.

Oral Cancer

Oral cancer begins with the development of abnormal carcinoma cells. It results in the growth of mouth sores that do not disappear on their own. The disease is life-threatening if it isn’t diagnosed or treated early on. Mouth sores, also called oral lesions, can appear in different areas of the oral cavity.

Gum Recession

Gum recession, also called receding gums, is when your gums begin to pull away from your teeth. As a result, the roots of your teeth become exposed, which typically causes sensitivity to hot and cold substances. This is because root surfaces do not have hard enamel covering them like the crowns of teeth do, which makes them more sensitive.

Dental Erosion

Dental erosion, also referred to as enamel erosion, erosive wear, or tooth erosion, occurs when acidic substances wear away tooth enamel. It is a chemical process that results in the loss of dental tissue and does not involve bacteria.

Mouth Breathing

Mouth breathing is when you inhale and exhale through your mouth rather than your nose. Breathing through the nose is the proper way to breathe because it warms up the nasal passages and moistens the air you take in. On the other hand, mouth breathing dries out the mouth, which can eventually cause cavities and gum disease.